Main Article Content


In the context of the processes of professionalization and modernization of political communication and mediatization of politics, the aim of the article is to show how to use social media in strategies for communicating of party leaders on the Polish political scene.

The research questions concerned attempts of the politicians to use social media to implement communication marketing strategies, in particular in the aspect of engaging and mobilizing Internet users not only in the periods of electoral campaigns, but also in the long-term perspective.

The messages disseminated by politicians in social media (mainly on Facebook and Twitter) were analysed primarily from the point of view of their effectiveness (measured by the popularity of entries and their media visibility). It was important to pay attention to the ways of presenting and creating the political reality by politicians through the media.

The empirical research covered the years 2015-2017 and were of the longitudinal nature.

The basic research method is the analysis of the content, both quantitative and qualitative. Examining the way of the presentation of specific issues I am using the concept of framing the media messages.

According to the first hypothesis (H1), the use of social media by Polish politicians proves the growing professionalization of political communication, especially through the prism of its Americanization based on the concept of a hybrid style of communication, thus adapting selected solutions tested on the American political scene to Polish realities.

The second hypothesis (H2) indicates that in the communication strategies of political party leaders, social media are perceived as a communication tool which primary function is not only to inform but also to maintain relations with a potential electorate, in accordance with the assumptions of relationship marketing.


social media political permanent campaign communication strategies professionalization of political communication Polish politicians

Article Details

Author Biography

Assoc. Prof. PhD Małgorzata Adamik-Szysiak, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University

Małgorzata Adamik-Szysiak – PhD with habilitation, is an Associate Professor in Department of Journalism in Faculty of Political Science, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (Poland). Her research interests are media and communication studies, media coverage of politics, mediatization of politics, political communication, political marketing, social media. She is the author several monograph and articles on media studies and political marketing (e.g. Twitter in communication strategies of the leaders of the Polish political parties, e-Politikon 2014; Audiovisual political advertisement in communication strategies of Polish political parties – the case of the parliamentary campaign in 2011, Central European Journal of Communication 2014). She is the winner of “PhD Dissertation Award 2011” (Polish Communication Association) and “Media and Democracy Karol Jakubowicz Award” (2018).

The article Social media as a tool of political permanent campaign on the example of the activity of Polish politicians is an extended version of the paper presented at the conference SGEM Vienna 2019 under the part on the results of research and conclusions.

DOI: 10.5593/sgemsocial2019V/1.1


  1. Newman N., Fletcher R., et. al., Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2018, Available at:
  2. PKW, Wybory Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej 2015 [Elections of the President of the Republic of Poland], Available at:
  3. IRCenter, Hupa A., Kto wygrał wybory prezydenckie 2015 w internecie. Raport z badania [Who won the 2015 presidential elections on the Internet. Study report], Available at:
  4. Sotrender, Kampania prezydencka w social media - raport [The presidential campaign in social media - report], Available at:
  5. Plasser F., Plasser G., Global Political Campaigning. A Worldwide Analysis of Campaign Professionals and Their Practises, Westport CT 2002, pp. 18-19, 40.
  6. Adamik-Szysiak M., Twitter in communication strategies of the leaders of the Polish political parties, ‘e-Politikon’, No. IX, pp. 119-120, 2014.
  7. Marshall P. D., Celebrity and power. Fame in contemporary culture, Londyn 1997, pp. 217-218.
  8. Jimmy Kimmel Live, YouTube, Mean Tweets - President Obama Edition, Available at:
  9. Andrzej Duda, YouTube, Andrzej Duda na Prima Aprilis [Andrzej Duda on April Fool’s Day], Available at:
  10. Fundacja ePaństwo, Raport roczny 2016. Państwo w mediach społecznościowych. Zobacz kto i jak wykorzystuje media społecznościowe w debacie publicznej [Annual report 2016. The state in social media. See who and how uses social media in the public debate], Available at:
  11. PKW, Wybory do Sejmu i do Senatu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej 2015 [Elections to the Sejm and the Senate of the Republic of Poland 2015], Available at:
  12. Holtz-Bacha Ch., Das Private in der Politik: Ein neuer Medientrend?, ‘Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte’ No. 41-42, pp. 21-22, 2001.
  13. Bowler S., Farrell D. M., Conclusion: the Contemporary Election Campaign [in:] S. Bowler, D. M. Farrell (eds.), Electoral Strategies and Political Marketing, London 1992, pp. 223-234.
  14. Swanson D. L., Mancini P., Patterns of Modern Electoral Campaigning and Their Consequences [in:] D. L. Swanson, P. Mancini (eds.), Politics, Media, and Modern Democracy: An International Study of Innovations in Electoral Campaigning and Their Consequences, Westport, CT 1996, p. 272.
  15. Papathanassopoulos S., Negrine R., Mancini P., Holtz-Bacha Ch., Political Communication in the Era of Professionalisation [in:] R. Negrine, Ch. Holtz-Bacha, P. Mancini, S. Papathanassopoulos (eds.), The Professionalization of Political Communication, Bristol - Chicago 2007, pp. 17-18.